Teaching Methods in kindergarten.

Basically a lot of methods that can be used by teachers to convey the material in teaching and learning activities in kindergarten, some of which are as follows

1. Storytelling Method
This method is a way in which children are invited to imagine / fantasize embodied in receptive language skills and ekspretif. This can cause for children who have less / no notice will not always answer, but another for children and can express who watched closely the course of the story, he will be able to answer and can express pendapatkannya about the story has been told by the teacher.
Therefore, the authors tried to apply the method of the story with props, especially the media image series, the purpose of giving this story so that there is no intention or level of language proficiency of children.
So the method of story telling is a way of giving lessons with the lighting and narrative orally by the teacher to student. The role of students in this method is to listen carefully the lessons presented by teachers.
a. Goodness lecture method (story):
1. To introduce the principal - the principal major point put forward new thoughts
2. Arouse students' interest and passion

b. Weaknesses lecture method (story):
1. When children do not listen closely, it will be easily forgotten
2. If teachers taught him that the whole pattern is dominated by descriptions and a one way (one way), then students will get bored quickly

As for step - step in to tell a story with a series of media images is as follows:
1. Teachers prepare a series of stories with the media image
2. Teachers set the child seat
3. Teachers start the story with the media image series
4. The teacher finished telling, children are invited to retell the story with a series of media images.

2. Demonstration method.
Method demonstration can be done by teachers, other people or children to take the entire class. Method demonstration is a way of teaching by showing an actual or an object model. Other things that can be shown is how to use a tool or a series of experiments. In this method the performance is developed students' ability to observe, classify, draw conclusions, apply concepts, principles or procedures and mengkonsumsikan to students - other students

3. Permaianan method
Permaianan method is a way of presenting teaching materials through various forms of the game. The game can be referred to the puzzle, pictorial boards (a type of snake ladder), a secret box picture cards made by students or teachers. This method can be used to provide compelling experiences for students in understanding a concept, reinforcing the concept that has been understood, or solve a problem. This method is useful because it can develop intrinstik motivation, provide opportunities to practice making decisions, and develop emotional control when winning and losing, as well as more interesting and fun making it easier for students to understand the materials presented. Thus the learning objectives will be achieved indirectly.

4. Method FAQ
Question and answer method is a way of presenting teaching materials through various forms of questions answered by students. This method is often used in teaching and learning together with other methods. This FAQ can be done at the beginning, the middle or at the end of the lesson activities. Questions and answers are often conducted to determine the extent of teaching materials that are or have been discussed was understood students. From the results the teacher can clarify the question and answer or stretch students' understanding of a lesson materials. In this method could be developed include the ability to submit and decide the question and communicate.
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principles of language skills development implementation

In accordance with the Special methodical Language Development (Department of Education, 2004; 7) "The principles of implementation of the development of language skills in Taman Kanak - Kanak", as follows:

a. Material taken from a conversation exercises or environmental themes and children.
b. Oriented teaching and learning activities on the ability to be achieved and where possible linked to the theme.
a. Children are given freedom in expressing thoughts and feelings and focus on spontasitas.
b. Teachers master the methods / techniques for implementation.
c. Communication between teachers and children carried out in close.
d. Teachers set an example or role model in using the language.
e. Materials containing the content to develop intellectually, emotionally, and in accordance with the stages of child development surrounding.
f. Not justified given the letters and their sounds and each one in it but through word containing the letter which will be introduced.
g. Not given a lesson such as reading and writing lessons in primary schools. "
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Language Skills Ability

1. Language Development Goals
In accordance with the Special Development methodical proficiency in kindergarten (Department of Education, 1996:3), development of proficiency in kindergarten students aim to be able to communicate verbally with the environment. Environment is the environment, among others, peers, friends playing, adults both in school, at home and the neighbors around her house.

2. Language Development Function
In a methodical Books Special Language Capability Development in kindergarten (Department of Education, 1996: 3) Function proficiency development for kindergarten children, among others:
a.. As a means of communicating with the environment.
b. As a tool to develop children's intellectual ability.
c. As a tool for developing children expressions.
d. As a means to express feelings and ideas to others. "

3. Scope of Language Ability.
In accordance with Outline - Outline of Learning Activities Program Taman Kanak - Kanak (GBPKB - TK), (Depsikbud, 2004: 4) in the development of language proficiency is structured in such a way that it can meet the needs of children. The scope of the development of language ability are as follows:
a. Imitating back sequence number, the sequence of words (auditory training).
b. Following a few commands at once.
c. Uses and can answer the question what, why, where, a few, how and so forth.
d. Speaks fluently with simple sentences.
e. Sing a few songs the kids

The development is aimed at ensuring children are able to express thoughts through simple language appropriately, able to communicate effectively and intriguing to be able to properly speak Indonesian.

In the execution capability that can be expected to be achieved gradually and repeatedly according to the abilities of children. Ability can be seen its success at the end of learning. Program of learning activities is achieved through the options in accordance with environmental themes that children and other activities that support the capability to be developed.

Implementation of all abilities, whether the ability of the formation and behavior of basic skills, can not be separated with the use of language, of course, the language of good and true, and so terinovasi learners to develop the language skills abilities. Fun and meaningful learning for students at all necessary efforts in order for the creative, innovate, berkolaboratif with all the citizens and the environment is especially dilingkunagn kindergarten, to create media or facilities in order to achieve the optimal goal.

Skills is one of the capabilities and potential that exists in every child, in order to develop optimal potential of such capabilities it needs to be given basic skills through training and guidance. Learning the language is also directed to sharpen students' sentiment that is able to understand the information conveyed is directly or indirectly.
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formulation problem chilhood

B. Problem formulation
Based on the background described above, researchers can continue the problem.
The formulation of the problem is as follows:
1. What about the ability of language skills to students in kindergarten Darussalam Sub Tanjunganom Nganjuk Academic Year 2009 / 2010
2. What the teachers' efforts to improve language proficiency of students through a series of media images in kindergarten Darussalam Sub Tanjunganom Nganjuk Academic Year 2009 / 2010?

C. Objective
Objectives to be achieved within this study are:
1. To describe the data on the ability of language skills to students in kindergarten Darussalam Sub Tanjunganom Nganjuk Academic Year 2009 / 2010
2. To describe the data on the effort of teachers in order to enhance the learning proficiency of students through a series of media images in kindergarten Darussalam Sub Tanjunganom Nganjuk Academic Year 2009/2010.
D. Importance of Research
With the successful writing of this paper is expected to be useful:
1. For Authors
a. Help teachers improve learning, especially the use of media images in a series of efforts to improve language skills, especially students in kindergarten Darussalam Sub Tanjunganom Nganjuk Academic Year 2009/2010.
b. Helping teachers grow in professional competence of teachers in accordance with the standards that have been established, thus increasing confidence in performing tasks.
c. Improving teacher actively, develop knowledge and skills especially pwnggunaan series of media images in an effort to improve language skills of students in kindergarten Darussalam Sub Tanjunganom Nganjuk Academic Year 2009/2010.
2. For students
Useful to improve learning outcomes of students, particularly those related to efforts to use the series to boost image medium proficiency students in kindergarten Darussalam Nganjuk Tanjunganom District.
3. For Institutions TK
a. As a major input dadam procurement plan or instructional media facilities required by the agency in an effort to improve student learning outcomes to improve basic skills, especially the ability of language skills.
b. Helping institutions Darussalam Sub TK Tanjunganom Nganjuk to grow with the increase or advance the ability of teachers and pendiidikan (students learning outcomes).
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childhood is a problematic issue because it often occurs during the more difficult behavior problems. This deals with the development of their unique personalities and by the freedom that is generally not successful they get. In the psychological realm of childhood - childhood is described with a number of different designations to describe the characteristics - characteristics that stand out from the psychological development of children during this age, one of the designations used are pre-school age.
The term pre-school age by teachers more focused to distinguish children - children of school age, this period is the period of preparation for primary school education. In the nursery - child, children are led to detach himself from habits at home. Many rules must be obeyed and was conducted in kindergarten who do not are like habits at home. Kindergarten is a place of transition in children's education process. One of the most common way in the surf environment is to ask, so in this period is often called the age question.

In this period the most prominent is the child imitate other people talk and action. By Karen that this period is also known to mimic age.
According to Elizabeth B. Huriock childhood - childhood is the ideal time to learn certain skills, he mentions three reasons: first child - a child happy to repeat, so they are skilled to do it. The two children - children are brave, so do not hampered by the kalu fear itself an illness or a friend - a friend sebagimana feared an older child. The three children - children easy and quick to learn because their body is still supple and sanagt new skills possessed so little of the newly mastered skills kertampilan menggannggu not available.

If the children - children are not given the opportunity in learning specific skills such as painting or imitating the sound of birds or other animals that preferred the sound of children, perhaps sent while progress has been possible then what happens is they lack basic katrampilan has been learned by friends - his peers and less have the motivation to learn various skills at the time given. In ahirnya independence will cause instability in children.

Skill marupakan one ability and potential that exists in every child, in order to optimize the potential for developing such capabilities it needs to be given basic - basic skills through training and coaching. At the age of one kindergarten skills necessary dikembangkkan is to learn language. Learning language is learning to communicate and therefore the learning skills at the age of kindergarten is aimed to increase students' ability to get to know the national language both orally and in writing. Language learning is also directed to sharpen students' sentiment. Learners are expected not only to understand the information conveyed directly but also delivered covertly or indirectly.

The essence of language is a tool to communicate, share experiences, learn from each other and enhance the intellectual and emotional abilities. Therefore the goal of developing language skills also refers to the competence of language use in good and true. Goal of developing language skills and reading and comprehension skills at the position and direction of kindergarten education is that students are able to communicate verbally with the environment. Environment is the environment around the child is between the other environments of peers, friends playing, adults both in school, at home and with neighbors in the neighborhood and have an understanding of the position concept in a simple way in accordance with the development of learners.

Development function and speaking proficiency for preschool children, among others, a tool to communicate with the environment, tools to develop children's intellectual ability, a tool to develop the child's expression, and the means to express feelings and thoughts to others.

The function of understanding the position and direction for preschool age children are as basic capital or early in life to be able menujuk up the position of the position and direction in accordance with the correct concept.
Learning program at the kindergarten curriculum by 1994 as stipulated in GBPKB-TK (Department of Education; 1995: 7) at point B on the program kegiata learn in order to develop basic skills, especially no. 2 about language. Development of language intended to make students able to communicate verbally with the environment.

Some language skills are expected to be achieved:
1. speaks fluently with simple sentences.
2. talked with the events surrounding it simple.
3. answering questions about short stories that have been in to tell a teacher.
4. telling images that have been provided.
5. talking about pictures that have made their own.
6. sort and tell the contents of the image series.
7. simple retelling of the story already told the teacher.
8. Ability to use the pronoun I in bekomunikasi
9. Having a variety prbendaharaan verb, adjective, the word state, question words and conjunctions

In the execution capability that can be expected to be achieved gradually and repeatedly according to the abilities of children. Ability can be seen its success at the end of learning. Program of learning activities is achieved through the options in accordance with environmental themes that children and other activities that support the capability to be developed.

Implementation of all abilities, whether the ability of the formation and behavior of basic skills, can not be separated with the use of language, of course, the language of good and true, and so learners terinovasi to develop the language skills, learning a fun and meaningful for all learners need in order to creative efforts , innovate, with all citizens berkolaboratif Kindergarten, to create media or means of supporting the achievement of an optimal goal. A teacher sued the creative and innovative in order to overcome the obstacles and problems that arise in the learning process. With creative and innovative in teaching a teacher can improve the basic skills achieved by learners.
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4 healthy 5 perfect

Creation and creativity in the activities of four healthy dish to serve five perfect. So we need in society or when we went kejenjang higher. In four healthy dish to serve five perfect like: white rice, vegetable soup macroni, spicy fried chicken, apples, and ice-degan. That perluadanya consensus from group members. Therefore, in a dish to serve four perfectly healthy five very useful are: increased energy, imune system and also maintain good health. Another no longer in penghidangannya nini not only food but the drinks will also be required, nor five perfect healthy dish 4 is very nutritious and also very beneficial for our bodies.

purpose :

- To increase our insight
- Provide an appreciation of the skills
- In order to be responsible for what we do
- To be able to cook various foods
- Applying the principles of cooperation within group
- Presents a wide variety of foods

Finally on art duties this time, we all succeeded in making the planning proposals menyelaikan kertakes practice exam that is to serve a perfect dish 4 5 perfectly healthy.
We make this Perencenaan based on the opinion / approval of the members of our group.
Consider and review of some criticisms, and suggestions from friends - a friend or teacher concerned, if there is no criticism and suggestions from friends - friends we may not be able to complete all tasks by as much as possible this kertakes.

A. Suggestion
In serving food apretiation 4 5 perfectly healthy. Dish of food and beverages served, must be varied, nutritious, nutritious and healthful.

B. Criticism
In practice makanana and beverage serving four perfectly healthy five consisting of: rice, laukpauk, vegetables - vegetables. Fruit - fruits and also added to the milk. Adjusted dengsan other foods and beverages.
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madrasah diniyah degradation

The essence of human beings "homo religious" man who is religious. Psycologis socially, people in her life takes a hold of religion. Because they recognize the existence of the One who is God Almighty who became backrest life for everyone who believed. For those who believe, believe in the God who made the earth, sky and its contents, including humans, then he will realize that he is a weak creature he will always try to draw closer to Him.
Thus the means / vehicle for galvanizing, makes a strong believers and Muslims, Islamic education required a, so that he could devote his life in a totality of Allah SWT, which is in accordance with Islamic Shari'a.

Pesantren and Madrasah Diniyah is an Islamic educational institution of departure / origin of the educational model of the mosque and the mosque, which was then in accordance with its development into a model whose system no longer madrasa halaqoh / wetonan but the model of classical systems. Therefore the existence of the madrasas is very necessary and needed in the middle of the Indonesian community that Homo Religious, whose goal is nothing else to print the man who is faithful and devoted in order to realize the ideals of the Indonesian people is to build a whole person.
ولو أن أهل القرى آمنوا واتقوا لفتحنا عليهم بركات من السماء والأرض ولكن كذبوا فأخذناهم بما كانوا يكسبون
Translation: "If the city residents if faithful and devoted, we will bestow to them the blessings of heaven and earth."

Departing from the urgency of the above, whether for personal, student, teacher, manager for the establishment of madrassas and the whole human development. Thus, madrasa Diniyah dimenej should be sought so that their management as well as possible, so do not lose just mastering the religious sciences but also supported the sciences, in order to become an educator / professional printer, capable of transferring a values noble, good for civilization / triumph of Islam Seta happiness in the hereafter.
المحافظة على التقديم الصالح والأجذعلى الجديد الأصلاح
"Preserving the old things better and take the new good."

At the current era of globalization demands of the communities want their children not only smart to take your lessons alone or control the religious sciences, but also to master the science-general science collaboration means (a combination of religious sciences and general knowledge is necessary) so that later he was able to achieve world-happiness hereafter. UNESCO launched the first. Learning to be second. Lerning to do 3. Lerning to know 4. Learning to live together. If the above four pillars of education achieved by the madrasa Diniyah then automatically people will applaud and enthusiastic about Diniyah madrasa. (Madrasah Diniyah can take people's hearts.

فخلظ رواةالعلم وإصحب حيادهم وصحبتهم زين وخلطتهم غنم
"Padukanlah various sciences and friends with the people of expert knowledge."
But if we observe about the madrasas Diniyah around us nowadays, rarely follow what about the four pillars of UNESCO proclaimed education. Also following the PP 55 of 2007 concerning the standardization Diniyah madrasa education. So could cause the decrease of the credibility of public trust Diniyah madrasa education. They consider that the madrasa education model Diniyah is people who can not follow the outskirts of the times, gradually madrasa Diniyah Nurul Hidayah in particular, generally the other will be left out of society, it will automatically become degraded.

However, if Madrasah Diniyah Sembung twisted Ngronggot respond to what has been declared UNESCO about the four pillars of education and also respond to PP 55 th 2001 then, inshaAllah Madrasah Nurul Hidayah Diniyah Ngronggot twisted remains exis and earn the trust of the community, because its output will be ready for use . And no doubt more in the future will be a flagship Madrasah
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Culture and customs of the East Javanese

Culture and customs of the Javanese people in the western parts of East Java receive a lot of influence from the Middle Java, so that this region is known as Mataraman; indicates that the area was once the domain of the Sultanate of Mataram. These areas include the ex-Residency of Madiun (Madiun, Ngawi, Magetan, Ponorogo, Pacitan), ex-Kediri Residency (Kediri, Tulungagung, Blitar, Trenggalek) and partially Bojonegoro. Like in Central Java, wayang kulit and ketoprak quite popular in this area.

Western coastal area of East Java is much influenced by the culture of Islam. This area covers an area of Tuban, Lamongan, and Gresik. Formerly the northern coast of East Java is the entrance area and the center of the development of Islamic religion. Five of the nine members of the Walisongo buried in this area.

Residency in the region of ex-Surabaya (including Sidoarjo, Mojokerto, and Jombang) and Malang, has little cultural influence Mataraman, considering this area quite far from the cultural center of Java: Surakarta and Yogyakarta.

Culture and Customs in the java horseshoe region is heavily influenced by the culture of Madura, given the Madurese the biggest population in this region. Osing is a cultural blend of Java, Madura, and Bali. While Tenggerese culture and customs heavily influenced by Hindu culture.

Villagers in East Java, as well as in Central Java, have a bond based on friendship and territorial. Various ceremonies are held, among others: tingkepan (gestational age ceremony for a child's first seven months), babaran (ceremony before the birth of the baby), sepasaran (the ceremony after the baby was five days), pitonan (the ceremony after the seven-month-old baby), circumcision, fiance.

Population of East Java generally share the marital monogamy. Prior to the application, the men do show nako'ake (asking if the girl already has prospective husband), after it conducted peningsetan (application). Marriage ceremony was preceded by gathering or kepanggih. To pray for people who have died, usually the family doing tell Donga on day one, the 3rd, 7th, 40th, 100th, 1 year and 3 years after death.
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karapan sapi and agriculture

The concept of modern agriculture, sustainable agriculture principles relating to agricultural development associated with agricultural systems without destroying or diminishing the ability of natural resources / Natural Resource. Resistant to stress and shock of agriculture sector. The development of agricultural techniques that preserve the value of local traditions, forms of reflection of natural resource use (SDA) of the present without compromising the ability of efficient long-term resources (future). In essence, is how to provide material
food and adequate food and economical.

(Emil Salim, 2005), Sustainable Development is sustainable development which include the following:
-Switch it from one track development process into a multi track.
Paradigm-shift from short to long term.
-Displace 'the economy as the main obstacle' to 'Ecological K / Main'.
-Displace the goal of development of the 'material' to the natural function of justice.
-Maximization of poverty eradication to replace the welfare of private individuals,

The condition of agricultural land on the island of Madura is quite difficult, because the arid and rarely rains.


Ihan pemul slowness of economic and employment opportunities that are not significant and a good visit. Then the hard flow of information and technology that went without filtration through various aspects / media lead to changes in the values and order of life and the life of nation and state, including changes in the behavior of groups / community groups in general in Madura.
There are at least three things at the level of concept that can explain the Madurese community changes related media as a communication medium beef karapan planting season in the agricultural sector is likely to change, ie
1). David Krech, 1995-1996: "The group tends to experience
changes towards a stable (self-stabilizing changes),
(Group and individual) in st ruktur and leadership as
a consequence of conflict, internal conflict, external forces
and shifts in membership. " 2). In explaining: "Efekt i fi bag
group partly determined by the nature of influence between sal ing
fellow members, like-i style of leadership, dependability and mot ivasi
friendly relations. And, 3). Changes in individual attitudes
essentially, is due to st imulus (stimulus). These changes
can happen easily or be difficult. Changes in attitudes of individuals in the same direction
with the influence and development of knowledge / technology. Changes in attitude
There are also two kinds, Yai tu:
-Change in attitudes in both directions or congruent
-Change in attitude or inkongruen contrary, in this context terl ihat
changes in congruent Madurese community.
Pal ing ing important life is the relationship between the individual and the explanation
l ingkungannya and-effect influence on the changes. According to
David Krech, 1962:183: "Where people are living in the past
time on the mark with a wide range of rapid change, Sei ring
With the change in life, a change in the way
view and interpretation of the norms of life. What had
stored meetings now begin revealed, bi He used to be considered violated
norm now shifted to a common and accepted. "
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karapan sapi and social

Social events or groups and human behavior as essentially qualitative because it is dynamic / one place (einmalig) or ideographic, examples of historical events. Events of human behavior is qualitative because it is associated with motivation / attitude / decision in the liver that can not be based on quantitative measurement. Composition of thought man is more quantitative, is the fact the world / objects / events is qualitative.
It is relevant to an explanation about the limitations of the group in
social concepts as follows. Groups can be distinguished as, Yai tu:
1.kelompok psychological and, 2.kelompok social organization. Group
Psychological: "means a unit which paused ri from two or more persons who
ing sal l dependent and thinking a certain ideological Iki. " Ik Karakterist groups
psychological is determined by idiologinya, st ruktur and position
individuals within the st rukturnya (David Krech et al, chapter XI).
The concept of social communities on the island of Madura, which is located in East Java,
Yai tu as one of the area and the wi layah Province in Indonesia
potential, East Java is a demographer and geographer is ident ik with
Madura, thinking l Iki largest population (2) in Indonesia. Adjacent
with Central Java in the west, the south Indian Ocean, the island of Bal i in t imur
and the Java Sea in the north. East Java Province, covering a total area 47 921 km2.
J iwa a population of 32,487,744 (1990) increased signi fikan
be 35 million more j iwa (1999), the cause of family planning
T o go well.
Picture is a picture of Madura, East Java. Population density
678 per km2 (1990), the character citizens who are very open and dynamic
and very known to migrate and trade. Natural resources and
human resources of East Java Province, a large enough bi He also managed
Poor data; in 2001 by the BPS with PKIB. / table / household
miskin/2.196.363. RT-7,267,843 d 10,046,943 inhabitants / compare with data from institutions
other (allegedly 21 million inhabitants). Data one of the main economic drivers of the beginning of the year 2001
namely SOEs. 188 SOEs that existed, including 54 operating in East Java consisting of six
business sectors, namely:
Sector, industry and trade,
-Sector of the industrial, construction and consulting services,
-Communications sector, telecommunications and tourism,
Financial-services sector,
-Sectors of agriculture, horticulture and forestry, and
-Public service sector
-The turnover estimated at more than 200 trillion (national), profits in 2001 reached 20 - trillion, two
trillions of them in the can from the operation in eastern Java. But state figures such magnitude
not automatically raise the level of social welfare.
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karapan sapi and comunication

There are many forms and concepts of communication since ancient times (Ancient) until Today (modern) including Madura either consciously or unconsciously as an aspect communication. American Indian tribal communities and tribes in Madura in Indonesia sometimes ways to communicate naturally and tend to the conventional mystical, far from science and technology but are equally effective results as well as more humane and perhaps according to the multi-faceted

Bull is the Madurese community communications media, for informed during the planting season when the season began to rain, a time when other media such as, TV, radio and print media are still rare. Currently the communication medium beef karapan has moved towards developing the sport aspect and the development of tourism in synergy with other information media, and leave the main aspect agriculture as a natural communication medium. People are more interested in show the cow in the contests and event tourism.
One of the concepts of communication is setting the agenda. Emperis research on the theory Agenda Setting McCombs and Shaw conducted in 1972. They write, among others : "The impact of media on the ability to induce cognitive change among individuals individuals have been dubbed as the agenda setting function of mass communication. Here lies The most important effects of mass communication, the ability of media to create the world structuring we. " McCombs, and Shaw (in Grace, 1988:260).
Agenda Setting Theory begins with an assumption that the mass media to filter the news, article, or writing which will airing. Selectively, editors, editorial staff, even determine which journalists themselves newsworthy and which should
hidden. Any incidents or issues were given particular weight with long presentation
(Time and space), prominence (headline size, location in the newspapers, the frequency appearance, the position in newspapers), and conflict (how to presentation materials). Because readers, viewers and listeners get most information through
mass media, the media agenda relating to the agenda of the community (public agenda).

Known to the public agenda by asking members of society, namely what they think, what they are talking with others, or what they perceive as a problem to attract the attention of the community center (community cilence). In addition to the agenda setting theory, there is a mass communication theory is widely accepted, namely the theory of Social Categorization, The Theory of Social differentiation (Defleur and Ball- Rokeach), in Deddy Mulyana states "social classification can be
based on identity, ethnicity, religion, sex, social class, residence (rural / urban)
and so forth. Various studies involving various social categories such
shows that the membership of people in a particular group raises
an important impact on their behavior.
The principle of this communication seems to have affected the Madurese community behavior, shift in the view karapan cow as a medium of communication in agriculture
Madura. Madurese community in an era of rapid change and globalization demanded
to vote.
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if I were a boy Beyonce

If I were a boy
even just for a day
I'd roll out of bed in the morning
and throw on what I wanted and go

Drink beer with the guys
and chase after girls
I'd kick it with who I wanted
and I'd never get confronted for it
cause they stick up for me

If I were a boy
I think I could understand
How it feels to love a girl
I swear I'd be a better man
I'd listen to her
Cause I know how it hurts
When you lose the one you wanted
Cause he's taking you for granted
And everything you had got destroyed

If I were a boy
I would turn off my phone
Tell everyone it’s broken
So they’d think that I was sleepin’ alone
I’d put myself first
And make the rules as I go
Cause I know that she’d be faithful
Waitin’ for me to come home (to come home)

back to *

It’s a little too late for you to come back
Say its just a mistake
Think I’d forgive you like that
If you thought I would wait for you
You thought wrong

But you’re just a boy
You don’t understand
Yeah you don’t understand
How it feels to love a girl someday
You wish you were a better man
You don’t listen to her
You don’t care how it hurts
Until you lose the one you wanted
Cause you’ve taken her for granted
And everything you have got destroyed
But you’re just a boy

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indonesia and cultural shift

Indonesia has many diverse socio-cultural. Specifically, socio-cultural situation in Indonesia is complex, given the Indonesian population numbering more than 200 million people in 30 tribes of unity. Indonesia has 67 parent culture that spread from west to east of the archipelago. Indonesia consists of 6000 inhabitated islands, besides the total of about 13,667 islands. From the above statement can be known that Indonesia is a country which rich with natural resources and overflow cultural resources.

Indonesia is a versatile multi-nation, whether it is a multilingual, multicultural, and multireligious. All that resources, if managed properly can be used as the potential for prosperity for the people and advancing our nation. Culture in the classical perspective was defined by Koentjaraningrat, as a whole system of ideas, actions and results of human work in the framework of community life which made the human identity that is obtained by way of learning.

In that sense, the culture includes everything that is the whole idea, intention, and the work of human beings, including the objects of human creativity and invention. Examples are traditional dance, traditional songs, and other local arts gained by learning. But in a more contemporary anthropological perspective, culture is defined as a system of symbols and meaning in a human society in which there are norms and values about social relationships and attitudes that become the identity of the communities concerned. Both classical and kontenporer perspective recognizes that culture is a self-identity that will differentiate with other nations. Therefore there should be a hereditary preservation so that copyrights, wills, and human works are not lost.

Factors That Cause the Cultural Shift

The causes that originated from the community itself are:
1. Increasing or decreasing population.
2. The existence of new discoveries.
3. Community opposition
4. The occurrence of rebellion or revolution.

The sources from outside the community, namely:
1. The causes that originated from the physical environment that surrounds human.
2. War
3. Effect of culture in other societies.
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culture and tourism

In this era of globalization (kesejagadan) such as archaeological remains now occupy important positions. This is not because of the physical form of buildings of archaeological objects but rather reflected the values of these archaeological objects. Various archaeological resources in many countries has aroused researchers, lovers of culture, lover of antiques and unique culture to come and witness the remains of the past.

In the centuries to the Roman Emperor 3-4 Horodatus has lured the uniqueness of the region remains in Egypt. Similarly, during the XV-XVI centuries Renaisanse many Europeans who came to the archaeological remains either from Europe or in the outer region. Even buildings that resemble a mountain in Sumaria called zigurat has attracted experts from Sweden, England and others.

Piles of stone that menggunduk at Borobudur, Prambanan, Sewu and others have been of special interest to the Dutch experts to re-establish the building during the dark days before the war. Ancestral remains in the form of the megalithic tradition and other archaeological remains has become a tourism potential. Basis of tourism development is the potential of cultural resources, cultural diversity, art and natural charm.

Arkeolgi tourism development via the object must be implemented through local empowerment approach (community-based tourism development). Megalithic tradition in the use of Pagar Alam to tourism to keep in mind the views Setiyawati Edi said that tourism development must be supported by the culture industry.

Cultural industry is anything that produces a product of cultural messages. This means that the product serves as a means of delivery of messages that can influence the thinking of understanding, penganggapan, attitude, bias and appetite in humans who consume it (Edi Sedyawati, 2003). The result, among other books, films, tapes and other music. For those reasons, in promoting tourism in Pagar Alam need books or movie information and other information materials.

Thus the local community as the beneficiary can and want to learn, know, understand and utilize cultural resources (megalithic tradition) Pagar Alam. Besides directly book can also be used by policy makers as a reference and the handle in the management of cultural resources in this megalithic tradition Pagar Alam. To obtain knowledge of the megalithic tradition packaging Pagar Alam, need for tourism research of archaeological objects (Archaeological torism).

Progress is based on archaeological tourism can be witnessed in many countries including Egypt, China, India, Cambodia Object Tourist Destination (destination) because it basically focuses on the tourism attractiveness of the object ie the uniqueness, rarity, scarcity, splendor, privileges, etc. . Megalithic tradition Pagar Alam has the quality and quantity that meets the requirements of tourism.

Pagar Alam archaeological remains can basically be used for improving the economy through tourism. Tourism market aimed at cultural and archaeological resources is very diverse. Prentice (1993) argues that the market segment of tourism can be divided into 5 categories:

1. A group of researchers among academic / scientific (educated visitirs)
2. Professional groups
3. Family group
4. Groups of students / schools
5. Travellers with nostalgia motivation.

The five groups of tourists are related to the utilization of cultural resources and archaeological resources with huge potential in addition to emphasizing the natural attractions of beauty / natural charm. Business tourism, business tourism can be distinguished which can be grouped into the scale of the reach of primary and secondary coverage scale. Primary range covers domestic tourism. Archaeological remains in Pagar Alam apparently can be grouped into two primary and secondary coverage. Because of the reach of primary and secondary coverage of each region or country that can promote tourism through archaeological resources must consider these
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culture and Education 2

Meaning of the importance of the past in the life of the nation has been said by Sartono Kartodirdjo (1968) as follows:

"The Sekaran is actually none other than the continuation

or extension of the past, which in many

shapes are still visible in the middle of us. Various

circumstances and problems today are not possible

completely understandable, if not known background

historical, is the origin, perkembanganya on

time ago "

The statement has maksut that the various values of life, the noble who lived in the present, as will develop in the future is essentially a form of continuity from the indigo-life and the noble nation in the past. Past noble values that are noble civilization should imitate. To learn, know, recognize and understand the value of past life it is necessary to increase the knowledge of things past through educational channels.

In a business introduction, understanding and penghayatqan to values that never existed then the need for packaging information and the process of understanding that must be pursued through education starting from the earliest proteges. Teaching and learning process through education, culture and archeology should be placed as a result perwujutan copyrighted works, and intention to enhance the dignity of our ancestors, the degree and dignity of the nation, improving quality of life of the nation, strengthen its identity and personality strengthen self-esteem and national pride.

The success of education not only creates an intelligent man but must also consider the probable and moral nation that can only be done with the planting of indigo-noble values of the nation. Education that works is that can menstrasfer noble values of the past in the life of nation and state.

Thus the importance of cultural and archaeological remains of prehistoric termaksut in Pagar Alam, has been the object of teaching and learning materials at the level of S1 to S3. archaeological remains in Pagar Alam has been a concern for scientists in the field of prehistoric archeology in particular and general culture.

Through education, the various mysteries surrounding the archaeological remains are known, known, understood, and expect to be used secarqa maximum. With education the results of the past remains in Pagar Alam can enrich the national kebudayan. Even the culture of the past in Pagar Alam, which contains the value of the noble life can be utilized in developing nations (nation building), this agrees with the view RP.soejono who said that "the sense of beloging" reasonable owned by masrarakat who wants to build his own.

Megalithic remains in Pagar Alam role in strengthening the culture of toughness and resilience of nations that bermura on cultural identity (cultural identity). Even a role in forming the whole Indonesian business. Noble values contained in the megalithic Pagar Alam based on the spirit of togetherness and mutual cooperation. Grahame Clark said that "a way to find archaeological objects that are tangible memento of the history of ground water has been successfully present the evidence needed to strengthen the" sense of belonging "."

Education refers to the nation's culture has a strong frame to strengthen jadidiri of personality, a sense of unity and cohesion, unity and mutual assistance and other more mainstream of development that focuses only on purely economic. This does not mean that development which aims to improve economic needs are not important. Development-oriented nation and highlight the culture are expected to do well. This can be witnessed on Japanese businesses to build their country. In the late Meiji era reforms to the nineteenth centuries Japan has made the modernization of the culture to maintain the independence of the country.

Another example of Prime Minister Mahatir Muhammad tried to cultivate cultural values in the form of "diligence, discipline, loyalty, the promotion of interst group rather than individual, high quality and good management system in bussinis" as the process of civilizing the nations wither and enhance their competitiveness . (Moeljarto, in 2002). Similarly, Mahatma Gandhi has been put copyrighted works and wills of their nation. Rhodesia had become Zimbabwe menguba the name of the country by exploiting arkeologinya sala-one remains to be used as unifying the nation. From these examples, the region with its rich cultural Pagar Alam and arkeologinya can encourage the progress of society.

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culture and Education

Megalithic tradition remains is information about the life of our ancestors past with all its aspects. With archeology can be proved that the Indonesian nation was still allied with bangadi Southeast Asia, Cambodia, Filifina, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam and others. With archeology (megalithic tradition) can be seen that the nations in Southeast Asia and the Pacific having a cultural and linguistic heritage of the nation which is the Austronesian language speakers.

With evidence of a relationship culture, language and beliefs will be utilized in fostering friendship, unity and unity among nations in Southeast Asia and even enhance friendship and peace between them. Megalithic tradition remains can be used as one criterion that a nation (Bansa Indonesia) have equality with the nations of the Asia Tenggfara bansa even in the world. As evidence remains arkeoligi form of Borobudur temple, and the site of a filter has been appointed as a world heritage (world haritage) which of course the nation of Indonesia.

Inca culture and civilization in America is a nation remains the world has memberiakn kesohoran and kebanggaaan nation. Similarly, in China Great Wall became the world's attention is good for scientists, researchers and tourists. Even in this era of technological progress that has been accomplished cangih western nations have had bound them in a vicious circle of life as a robot, they were saturated and empty meaningless lives eventually lose much of their personality and identity, they lived without restraint as an escape boredom and emptiness. In such circumstances, many citizens of developed countries who wanted to find identity and genuine personality. Because the identity and personality and originality can only be found on archaeological objects, then they mencarin on archaeological remains which is considered as an origin (David, 2001).

Termaksut archaeological remains of megalithic tradition has given the spirit of national culture and art. Various forms of the work of various ethnic groups pahar field of art, painting, carving and others are always given "identity" by archeology (megalithic) on the works of Indonesia. For example other forms of decorative patterns of the past from prehistoric times, provides a strong inspiration in the works of art of various tribes of Indonesia. It can be seen in the Land of Batak, Minangkabau, South Sumatra, Lampung, Toraja, Borneo, and others. Decorative geometric patterns, patterns of flora and fauna HIA and natural objects from the development of the megalithic tradition alive and growing until recently. Through the noble values contained in the megalithic tradition which developed in Pagar Alam and other places in Indonesia, which is expected to give way regionalism as a vehicle for unifying the nation. This can be done with reference to the policy are:

1. Eliminating the major cultural characteristics of minority groups are different, made into a kind of national culture.
2. Required the creation of national loyalty by not eliminating various kinds of local culture or policy of "Unity in Diversity" (Kodiran, 2003).

Experts say that many community development and nation, or commonly called the "whole Indonesian nation-building" should be based on a "cultural nation" (termaksut archaeological therein). Such views will lead to the desire and suggest the existence of interest to recognize, know, understand and create the culture and build the nation together with attention to its cultural roots. Cultural and archaeological knowledge (termaksut megalithic) is currently experiencing dynamic and continuous process in the sense of what has been produced in the past will be sustainable in the present and even future. The basic principle of this continuous process that gave birth to a desire to know kepurbaklaan or past peoples and cultures.

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culture and ideology

Fences Megalithic Nature and Ideology

Pagar Alam archaeological remains can be utilized in improving the lives of the nation and state to build the nation and to enhance a sense of belonging as dikemukankan by (Grahame Clark) "in a way to find archaeological objects that are tangible memento of the history of ground water has been successfully presents the evidence needed to strengthen the "sense of belonging" (Clark, 1960). Archaeological and cultural experts such as Haryati Soebadio, edi Setyawati, R, P, Soejono, (Grahame Clark), has placed the archaeological remains as a result of the work, inventiveness, taste and strength, and intention that is the pride and priceless. It contains archaeological remains noble values, so it can maintain friendships, have evidence that can strengthen the identity and personality, strengthen the resilience of culture and others. Therefore, according to experts containing archaeological remains noble values should imitate.

Referring to the view in Sedyawati edi-day seminar on "culture of research and development strategy in Indonesia," states that "the life of the nation remains nuanced and based on past history" can be taken here that the remains of archaeological significance be one of support and hope that the archaeological remains is smoke which is very important for the current revival of this nation in a state collapsed. Sebgai remains the nation's cultural heritage, archaeological remains in Batang already included in the assets of the State and have been put in an authentic interpretation of the 1945 Constitution which says "national culture is the culture that arises as the fruit of the cultivation of all Indonesian people. Long as the original culture and the cultural peaks in the regions throughout Indonesia as of the cultural nation.

Cultural development effort should lead towards the progress of civilized, cultural unity by not rejecting the new materials from foreign cultures that can develop or enrich their own national culture and the heightens the degree of humanity Indonesian nation. "Thus it can be concluded that the remains of the megalithic tradition or perasejarah Natural fencing is a multi-function remains, among others, to strengthen the identity and personality, national pride, confidence, unity, progress adap, culture, and so this lain.hal still can be proven in various regions when a large stone building society membangub eg Toraja, Sumba, Sabu, and others. Identity and personality in landasi noble values should be in the Model to form the nation's personal life and children who can be accountable.

Leon Portilla an expert from Mexico said that a nation which has no identity and personality, that the people will be swayed by keingginan laindan nation's most dangerous nation is easy tuduk reflect. Thus, identity and personality noble nation must be able to continue in the Model and in the next kegenerasi. Megalithic tradition that remains is the result of culture fathers must be a trigger to increase the sense of belonging (sense of belonging) that are critical in nation-building (nation building) as in the saying by Grahame Clark.

Archaeological remains have the sublime values of life are manifest in the nature of mutual cooperation, togetherness, unity, tolerance, mutual help, feel kinship sepenanggungan and others. This is a part of life that reflects the identity and personality. Personality nation has grown and developed since thousands of years ago. In the process of construction of large stones to worship, and the burial may not be made without the landasi by solidarity, mutual cooperation, unity, tolerance, mutual aid and other help.

Era of globalization, which causes the influence of "Americanization" growing cause negative cultural life. Even cultural globalization is making the nations of the world and Indonesia in particular get a bad impact. This must be based on immediate "resistance" is to look for, find (reidentifikasi) or revive (revitalization) nation noble values, reflected and embodied in culture and archeology. Thus the culture children are expected to be the nation back to the original kesifat precious and valuable cultural greatness. True nature does not mean outdated. Archaeological resources in Pagar Alam Pasemah particular and in general as well as archaeological remains elsewhere Indonesias mempuyai strengths in various aspects:

* Increase self-esteem and confidence
* Enhance national pride
* Improve and strengthen the identity and personality
* Increase the idea of friendship
* Increase sense of belonging (sense of belonging)
* Increase the sense of nation building (nation building)
* Enhance national unity

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Culture Distribution in Indonesia

One of the interesting findings artefaktural (archaeological remains) is the finding remains megalith Pagaralam Pasemah type. (South Sumatra). Megalith Pasemah has this unique characteristic that grow and grow because of the influence lingkunga, knowledge, creativity and dynamic thinking supporters. In the archaeological significance of the megaliths have the role, function and persebaranya. Other megalithic Tingalan called "dynamic strongly agitated" (Geldern, 1945) which became the main characteristic has also given instructions to her and the relationship between culture (ancestors of) a region with another region in Indonesia. Arca Pasmah type is determined also in Lampung and Batang regency (Central Java). This is understandable because kalangsungan very old megalithic tradition. Megalithic tradition always be changing and moving dynamically as supported by advanced technology and creativity of its maker. Megalithic tradition of natural fences are pusta culture and civilization that managed to spread its influence to various regions in Indonesia. Can be said that the megalithic tradition Pasemah has produced a dynamic characteristic of the megalithic objects that are advanced (sophisticated).

In 1967 Loofs argues that the megalithic contains many problems. In his book he called the megalithic tradition as "He enigme de la plus grande prehistorie" having problems, among others, about the origin, existence, distribution, and cultural advocates. (Loofs, 1967). Pagar Alam megalithic tradition contribute to solving these problems. The result of research the author had found evidence of activity of the megalithic tradition Pagar Alam, which arrived in the area of Lampung and even in Java.

Megalithic tradition supporters who live in the highlands (the southern part of Batang) apparently still in touch with the natural fence. Pagar Alam megalithic tradition is the basis and reference for the statues in the manufacture of Batang. The shape and style of statues found in progenitor stem is influenced by knowledge and technological development megalithic Pagar Alam. Human figures riding elephants, characterized Pagar Alam became a reference for the community to create a means of worship Trunk. Elephant statues found in Lapung also have characteristics that are not much different from the culture of Pagar Alam.

The findings in the form of megalithic statues of human figures and animals in Lampung and in bars indicate that the spread of megalithic Pagar Alam is so strong. Another possibility supporters of the megalithic tradition gradually make the shift toward the east, through Lampung, West Java to Central Java North continues to hold even Jawah the Middle East. The concept of trust that in the megalithic profess that refers to the worship of ancestral spirits (ancestor waourship) is so strong. The distribution of megalithic tradition Pagar Alam increasingly eastwards away from the center will experience a depreciation of the quality and quantity. Estimated a megalithic been growing in other regions, but because of the influence of environmental and public mindset then form megaliths were to change, even as characterized in various places.

Directly or indirectly supporting the megalithic tradition who live in high datarang Pasemah never touch (contact) with the megalithic tradition in Lampung and Bar (Central Java).

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indonesia culture education

what's wrong with education in Indonesia? ". Is there a "less wrong" with education in Indonesia. But definitely a very noticeable is the cost of education in Indonesia is very expensive. This causes a lot of Indonesian citizens who have dropped out of school due to lack of school fees. But whether that is the sole cause of dropping out of school? Because in other places also found the number of students who nearly dropped out of school has a high motivation to continue their education. Many who moonlighted to supplement the family income to be able schools. But if the spirit is enough?

When the spirit has been able to overcome adversity on the one hand, new challenges emerge that are "external". Education system in our beloved country looks a little "weird" with standardisasinya system. Many students who are quite accomplished with the amazing physics subjects did not pass because the value of Indonesian language under the standard. This reminds the writer's childhood who loved art and music in English but is weak in math and physics, should be "forced" to follow lessons for the study of physics and mathematics, and "leave" the art of music and English. When it comes to questions from the author's mind, "why am I not allowed to take an interest and talent, but instead was forced to love and be proficient on an entirely outside the territory of interest and my talent? Is this not even be a murder of interests, talents and creativity? "If you like this, how could a student has a passion from within to school. Instead of the spirit but the "coercion". The author is hoping a system of majors that started in the seventh grade level (secondary school). So since junior high school students have started to be directed in accordance with the interests and talents of each. In this way, then the younger generation has been the focus of their interests and talents can be sehingg tenag cadres of the Indonesian nation's experts.

The mass media often preach how terrible the unequal educational facilities. Lots of schools labeled "Public Schools" whose condition is very worrying. On the other hand there are many state schools which have facilities that are established to support education. A question occurred to where education subsidies are said to evenly? Indeed, for an archipelago like Indonesia, has a difficulty level for distribution of goods and services. Perhaps this is one of the main causes of the many that cause less unequal distribution of subsidies to the regions.

Another obstacle which, according to a very influential writer is moral. Moral education culture in this country according to the author about getting the right portions for the younger generation to create a moral and qualified. It also added a lack of parental attention in shaping the moral development of students. Not a few Indonesian students who caught the case of drugs, rape / abuse, violence and fighting in a brawl and some even lead to murder and others. Is this the culture of Indonesia? Plus a lot of students who are "prestige" with its own culture, many students are anti-native Java with traditional art which in their view are outdated. Therefore, the authors very much hope there is special attention for cultivation of moral values and culture since early in the standard educational curriculum so that when graduate students in Indonesia had a soul to the soul of a truly civilized Indonesian children.

To Indonesian education is education which should have noble souls Indonesian cultural traits which are actually native cultures that have a level of upper-class culture. Indonesia is a country that has a very diverse cultural patterns. So it should be in preparing for the standardized national educational curriculum, the government not only adopted from other countries which have very clear ideology, social conditions, economy and culture very different from Indonesia. It would be nice if there are adjustments to the conditions of Indonesian society itself without leaving the original character of ideology and culture of the archipelago.

To overcome the existing problems, it was hard to remember the condition of the Indonesian state as has been described earlier writers. Between people and government must create a continuum. The parents should not immediately remove their children is totally left to the school. The mass media should be filtered also need to provide knowledge to parents how to provide moral education and discipline children at home.

In one school environment standardization National Exam. Do not let the UAN is actually even compromising the ability of students who excel. Because not a few outstanding students and have it the name of Indonesia in science competitions are international, have become victims of injustice standardized exam. Therefore, the education system in Indonesia should be able to make and also implements a curriculum based on core competence as a special priority, followed by general ability. Again, this is not easy because of the existence of specific priorities that will require special attention as well. Special attention must also be supported with the availability and smooth distribution of equalization of educational facilities for schools, making it very easy process to learn in school.

So to solve the education problem to Indonesia must have good cooperation between the government (Ministry of Education), curriculum, school, the teachers, parents, and students. And that do not forgotten the perpetrators distribution facilities of education subsidies should be more discipline yourself so that these subsidies to the correct destination.

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batik motif and indonesian wealth

Orchid motif
Orchid is a flower that became the pride of the Indonesian nation. Orchid is a relationship which are manifold, but typical that the orchid has a beautiful little flower. Astonishment at this anggreks reflected in a flower motif inspired by orchids and orchid motifs are called motifs.

The emergence of this orchid motif is part of the dynamics of Indonesian batik, batik motif that is carrying the cultural and natural wealth of Indonesia. This is a form of cultural openness in the development of Java through the art of batik creations.

Motif Batik RAFLESIA
Other example is wealth of flora fauna of Indonesia into the batik motif is the emergence of RAFLESIA. RAFLESIA is a typical flower is a symbol of community pride Bengkulu because this flower is considered the only giant flower which only exists in Indonesia.
Flowers RAFLESIA a typical flower. Carrion-smelling flowers and only appear at certain times and includes a unique natural wealth of Indonesia. Admiration for this RAFLESIA flowers appear in a motif that highlights RAFLESIA flower picture. Despite the natural wealth of flowers reflesia not Java, but this batik painter felt that such interest should be enshrined in a specific motif called the interest.

motive Bali Banana
Admiration on Indonesia's natural wealth seems to be one trend batik motifs, especially the famous natural wealth. One of the natural wealth that is not famous, but because the island is famous, the natural wealth of the be lifted. This is evident in the motifs of banana Bali.
Some natural resources are often associated with the island of Bali such as oranges and salak Bali Bali. Bali Island is a very famous island. Bananas Balinese batik pattern emerged in order to ride in Bali ketersohoran.

The appearance of this motif is closely associated with religious nuances brought by banana Bali. For the Balinese, Balinese banana represents a significant commodity used in sacred offerings (offerings). Because of the importance, then the commodity is raised in a batik motif. Only, for people outside of Bali did not know about the function and meaning of Balinese banana, can not be merasakah vibration religious meanings carried by these motives.

Indonesia is also rich in natural wealth of the sea. The natural resources of the sea is usually raised by coastal batik-batik, but today it no longer dominates. In Surakarta, batik that highlight the wealth of sea of which is raised by batik dab Dartono work. Work Dartono raises sea shades because the fabric was reserved for beach clothing (sarongs beach). In Surakarta, motifs with images of fish become quite prominent since the more widespread use of batik for various purposes. Examples that highlight the fish motif is the work shirt, Bambang Slameto, S. Sos (owner of ).

Javanese interaction with the natural surroundings can create art that reflects a natural event. One form of art in the form of a peacock dance called the Peacock Dance Ngigel depicting a dancing peacock showing off the beauty of his feathers. This dance is a traditional dance is very well known. This event is also reflected in batik motif depicting the wealth of fauna with the title Java ngigel peacock motif as follows.

Batik Motifs Ngigel Peacock (Peacock Dance)
Ngigel peacock peacock is a picture that is attracting the opposite sex. Having attracted the opposite sex, then there marriage. In the Java language, called karonsih berpadunya love (love mix). Karonsih also become one of a dance that is usually staged in the midst of marital intent. In batik motifs, there are also other motives that are not karonsih is a depiction of two male peacocks are screwing like the following picture.

Picture Motif: Karonsih (Two sex peacock tail).
Natural wealth is also reflected dakam form sources of food and clothing. Normally the term is called food and clothing. Food and clothing is the prosperity of the icons which are generally described in bentukp adi and cotton. In addition to food and clothing, health is also an important thing. In Java terms, this concept referred to as: "cheap food and clothing, fresh sanity" means cheap food and clothing and body healthy.

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motif KORPRI batik

Motifs used by the organization also reflected the socio-cultural changes that occurred. Motives are voicing changes that occur in these organiasi. This can be seen on batik KORPRI (Staff Corps of the Republic of Indonesia). In the new order, and family members KORPRI is a major supporter GOLKAR (Functional Group). This party is the largest political party which is the main vehicle NEW ORDER. Various suppression and intimidation is given to public servants in order to choose GOLKAR. Among the statement that members who do not choose GOLKAR KORPRI is a traitor because KORPRI leaders have declared loyalty to GOLKAR. Therefore, in KORPRI known monoloyalitas or loyal to only one party that is GOLKLAR.

In this period KORPRI have new uniforms in the form of motifs, based white with a blue motif. Consider the following motives.

Motif on top consisting of lung-lungan and buketan, but which became the main motive is to form a picture badge consisting of a banyan tree, drawing a house and two wings. In the Pancasila, the banyan tree is a symbol of unity. In the pictures, in addition to meaningful unity, the symbol implies that GOLKAR KORPRI is a major supporter. Preview picture of a house reflects the organization or the government of Indonesia where the civil service. So, in terms of symbols, KORPRI silmbol GOLKAR which seemed to take the form of a banyan tree as a symbol of the most important. This will be further confirmed in KORPRI badges.

In 1996, Indonesia experienced a period of reform. There is a current social and political change in various aspects of government. It is increasingly prominent in the arena of government GOLKAR fading. If the New Order period, almost all government officials from GOLAKR, then there was a shift in the reform era. The shift seen from the emergence of officials from various groups, particularly among the party. Cabinet of the Government of Indonesia called Unity Cabinet / Cabinet Mutual Assistance in which every element of society / party could become officials / ministers. This era also marked by the existence of local elections from among the public that government officials were to be varied. This condition then appeared in KORPRI batik motifs. KORPRI batik has removed the element of banyan tree and highlight the main principles of Pancasila as the Indonesian nation. In terms of color, motif batik uniforms during the New Order KORPRI predominantly blue, while the motifs of batik in the reform era was dominated by light green color with a different appearance in blue, green, yellow) with the emphasis on the Pancasila eagle image (core subjects). Consider the following KORPRI batik uniforms.

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cultural changes

Surakarta is a dynamic city culture in social change. This cultural city is rich with art and cultural activities which are recognized by the international community. One form of art that still exists today is the art of batik. Batik is one of the inherited tradition that is currently evolving to adjust to the times. Activities batik is still contextually, especially in Surakarta. Today, the government tried to turn the industrial centers in Surakarta with the title batik kampung kampung batik which is expected this will be the hallmark of the city of Surakarta city batik industry. Batik Surakarta, also has a share in the struggle of the Indonesian nation.

As a form of art, batik was closely associated with socio-cultural conditions. As revealed by Janet Wolff (1981) that art is a social production. Contained within the ideology of art production. Works of art in individual and collective poles. Because it emphatically Wolff stated that the artists work is not in the mood terioslasi of social and political situation (1991:27). This indicates that the growing and berkembanganya related to sociocultural conditions.

The development of batik as an art work is also not free from socio-cultural conditions of art production backdrop. Batik motif was also arise due to socio-cultural changes. For example, the motive appears related to the business machete Panembahan Senopati to have its own cultural characteristics when he removed himself from power Pajang. Because a lot of inspiration Senopati Panembahan Parangkusuma, parang motif is created from these Parangkusuma said. This motif was then developed according to demands of the times so that it appears the motive derivation barong machete like a machete, machete suspect, machetes win, and so forth (Sarwono, 2005). Histrosi emergence of social nuance motive has not been much studied and considered the experts.

Picture of social change that is reflected in batik needs to be studied to increase understanding about the motives of those who will eventually lift the value of batik and as evidence of the creative process and the creation of a work of art to gain world recognition.

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culture differences

Different culture among Indonesian and Chinese are assumed will be continued from previous era of dualistic economy (Boeke, 1953). Unfavorable work habits and orientation, short cut behavior or ‘budaya menerabas’ (Koentjaraningrat, 1969) are assumed still valid. Cultural changes are expected incurred after long period of economic development, assumed could reinforce Indonesian approaching Chinese in terms of work centrality (CW), normative dimension of obligation (OBL) and entitlement (ENT) or opportunity (OPP), economic function of working (PAY), intrinsic work outcomes (IR), and valued work outcome in terms of social contact (CONTACT).

Indonesia is a country with diverse local cultures. Economic development plan for the country had been creating issues at the beginning after there were presumptions that ‘Indonesian culture’ was unfit in supporting economic development program (Boeke, 1953; Koentjaraningrat, 1969). Cultural unfit presumptions were imposed based on common comparison between Indonesian origins and Chinese, whom had played economic role successfully in the country.

Presumption on managerial fit, however, confronting with social learning theory among groups (Bandura) and a long period successful economic development in Indonesia may be hypothesized to have cultural change.

Cultural changes may be referred to any change in part or whole cultural dimensions. Hofstede, Kluckhohm, Deal & Kennedy, Harrison & Hardy, or Hampden & Turner have their cultural dimensions . In this study cultural change will be measured in terms of (1) central variables meaning of working in terms of work centrality, societal work norms and valued work-outcomes and work-goals, and (2) managerial job fit in terms of people’s work aspiration gap with work reality.

Economic development period is assumed contextual factor of the meaning of working, originally being measured in terms of personal-family situation, present job and career history and macro-socio-economic environment (MOW International Research Team, 1987). Managerial fit in this study is cultural job fit comparable to soft competency in managerial level. And phenomenon of learning through credible example among people with certain personality and strongly conditioned by displacement’ in the model of ‘entrepreneurial event’ (Shapiro, 1987) could change individual’s career becoming business entrepreneur.

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Indonesia painting art, nowadays

Indonesian painting, particularly that labeled with "modern", can not be denied, that its journey, led and oriented to western painting conceptions. Unfortunately, its understanding and concept adaptation, only a little bit and just a pieces. The style and genre, that occurred in the western hemisphere like a recipe with menus, which ready to use. So any form concept that emerged in the West, will be absorbed totally. Today this painting style became an alternative mode, without noticing its coherence with an established culture and rooted culture in Indonesia.
Indonesian painting art nowadays, no longer looking for its identity, but more priority to personal interests. And more refers to the needs of investors and art collectors. Arts was no longer be an expression of personal feelings, but more emphasis on market demand. Aiming to the painting industry products, which seem merely to fullfil the needs of the gallery or workshop. Indonesian Artists should have an obligation to form the style in creating of artwork, which reflects to Indonesia identity.

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Indonesia’s cultural art is greatly influenced by other cultures, such as the Hindu mythology and culture that is reflected in the Javanese and Balinese dances.

Many of the dances also reflect some Islamic values. Several of these dances originate from the island of Sumatra, such as the Saman Meusukat dance and the Seudati dance from Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam.

Another famous cultural item from Indonesia is the wayang kulit (shadow puppet made from goat skin) that depicts mythological characters and stories. The art of old poetry in the form of quatrain and couplet sayings from various regions such as the Malay quatrain are often cited in special occasions or in cultural performances.

One of Indonesia’s cultural heritage that has been acknowledged as a world heritage is the batik cloth. The prominent batik industry areas are in Yogyakarta, Solo, and also Pekalongan.

Pencak silat is an art of self defense which is uniquely from Indonesia. This martial art is sometimes shown at certain performances accompanied by traditional music of the region.

In the field of music, Indonesia is rich with traditional as well as modern music that extends from the city of Sabang (the western point of Indonesia) to the city of Merauke (the eastern point of Indonesia). Although traditional music including Javanese keroncong is commonly known, modern music is more popular followed by dangdut music. Dangdut is one type of music originating from Indonesia that has also become quite popular throughout the country. This type of music is a blend of Malay and Indian music with elements from traditional music as well. The name of “Dangdut “ is derived from the sounds of “dang” and “dut” (pronounced as “doot”) that come from the dominating resonances of the bongo and the flute. The Dangdut singers usually sing while dancing expressively and gracefully following the beat of the music. There are several varieties of Dangdut music namely Malay Dangdut, Modern Dangdut (using modern instruments) and Coastal Dangdut (influenced by Javanese and Sundanese traditional music). In the 1970s, Dangdut was initially recognized as a type of Malay orchestral music, but in the 1980s, this type of music became more popularly known as Dangdut music.

The people of Indonesia consist of various ethnic groups, religions and faith. The various ethnic groups are for example Batak, Karo, Minangkabau, Malay in Sumatra and so forth. Indonesia acknowledges several religions namely Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism and Buddhism and the Konghucu faith, but the majority of the population are Moslems.

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Kebaya - Indonesian Traditional Dress for Women

History of the Kebaya

Kebaya is one of Indonesian heritage, but There is much speculation as to where the kebaya could have originated from. There are some who say that the kebaya originated in the Middle East, while others argue that it may have come from nearby China. Derived from the Arabic word kaba meaning “clothing” and introduced to Indonesia via the Portuguese language, the term kebaya has come to refer to a garment whose origins appear to be a blouse.

Kebaya was first worn in Indonesia at some time during the 15th and 16th centuries. This garment is similar to what is described as a “long, fitted, flared kebaya known as long kebaya, worn in the 16th century by Portuguese women arriving on the south-western coast of Malaysia, situated across the Malacca Straits from Sumatra, in northwestern Indonesia.

Many sources also cite Chinese influences on clothing of the time, one source comparing the kebaya to an open-fronted long-sleeved tunic worn by women of the Ming Dynasty. The introduction of this kind of dress were accredited to two major occurrences of this time; the emerging influence of Islam and the arrival of the Europeans to the archipelago. Whether it was Arabia or China that brought us the wonderful kebaya, there is no denying how quick the use of this garment was made uniquely Indonesian and spread from one island and ethnic group to another which its own regional variations. This quick diffusion of the use of the kebaya was also linked to the spice trade that was happening during this time in history.

Origins of the Kebaya

Kebaya took on a new role as the formal dress for the European women in Indonesia, After Dutch colonization. During this time, the kebaya was made mostly from mori fabric. Modifications made to this traditional costume later introduced the use of silk and embroidery to add design and color. The most dominant form of kebaya worn on the islands of Java and Bali today, can be visibly traced to the kebaya worn in Java and Sunda from the late 19th - early 20th century onwards.

Traditional kebaya required the torso of the women to be wrapped with a long piece of cloth called a stagen. Many of the easily recognizable features of today’s kebaya – a tight fitting blouse that enhances the torso of the woman; the fold-back collarless neck and front opening; long sleeves; and the type of semi-transparent fabric – are evident in the kebaya of the past century. Women of higher social status would have help in wrapping their torso with the stagen however women who were not so fortunate to have help could dress themselves by tying the end of the stagen to a post and literally wrapping themselves into it.

The semi-transparent kebaya blouse was then worn overtop of the stagen. This blouse was fastened with a brooch rather than buttons and buttonholes. It was customary to combine the kebaya with kain – a length of unstitched cloth worn on the lower part of the body, often (and incorrectly) referred to in the English language as sarong. This kain was wrapped around the body with the pleats being placed at the front of the body. Traditinally this kain was dipped in a cornstach solution and then carefully folded by hand into pleats and pressed to produced the crisp look that was desired.

Indigenous Dress in the Making of a Nation

The form of the kebaya, considering the enormous -historical, political and social– shifts that have occurred in Indonesia during the last century, has remained relatively unchanged. Its function and meaning however, in contrast to its form, has a major changes in colonial and post-colonial era, operating to meet different groups’ political agendas, social needs and aspirations.

The kebaya has come to symbolize the emancipation of women in Indonesia through a representation linking the kebaya to the 19th century “proto-feminist” figure of Raden A. Kartini. During the 19th century, and prior to the Nationalist movement of the early 20th century, the kebaya had enjoyed a period of being worn by Indonesian, Eurasian, and European women alike, with slight style variations. During this time distinguishing class and status was important and produced variants of the basic costume.

The kebaya of Javanese royalty were constructed of silk, velvet and brocade; Javanese women belonging to the commoner class wore figured cottons; the kebaya worn by Eurasian women was of white cotton trimmed with handmade European lace during the day, and of black silk in the evening; while the Dutch women preferred a shorter white kebaya. It was even possible for Dutch women planning to travel to the Dutch East Indies to purchase their kebaya in the Netherlands prior to leaving.

Bali’s Kebaya

Kebaya, in Bali, has a much more recent history. The Dutch, whose occupation of Bali began as late as 1849 in the north of the island, and whose direct rule did not begin until 1882, are believed to have enforced the wearing of the kebaya. At the time Balinese women’s breasts were uncovered, except for formal and ceremonial occasions, during which a sabuk might be wound tightly around the upper torso, covering the breasts but leaving the shoulders and arms exposed. The women of Buleleng, the regency of northern Bali, therefore would have been some of the first to adopt the kebaya.

Kebaya also define the social structure of the owener. Other sources however, do not locate the kebaya being in use until the early 1920s by which time it was in full use in other areas of Indonesia. It is via the royalty and the palaces that the kebaya appears to have been disseminated out into the community. New dress codes adopted by members of the royalty returning to Bali from Java were passed down through the caste system. Yet despite the fact that clothing is often used to separate class, there seems to be no evidence of the time to indicate that there were any rules delineating styles of kebaya according to caste. Differences in kebaya cloth were more likely to be an outcome of differences in wealth.

Emerging as National Dress

Kebaya had become associated with Indonesian nationalism. By the 1920s however, and with the full emergence of the nationalist struggle in Indonesia, European women stopped wearing the kebaya because it was identified with typical Indonesian attire.

During the period of the Japanese occupation of Indonesia (1942-1945), educated Indonesian women prisoners-of-war chose to wear kain-kebaya rather than the western dress allocated to them as prison dress. A different set of political conditions produced a reversal of meaning. In this situation the women employed a cultural code (of traditional dress) to assert their political position, differentiating themselves from their European women that were also prisoners-of-war.

From the Palace to the Street

Kebaya is worn by a wide range of women from the former President Megawati to the jamu street vendor. Kebaya could never be claimed to operate as a social leveller. Women who sell jamu (traditional herbal medicine), from young to old, and right across the islands of Java and Bali are wearing kebaya. Today, in Indonesia the image of a woman wearing kebaya sells a variety of products from traditional herbs to Betadine to fried chicken. As an icon the women in her traditional clothing - kebaya - sells tradition and all the purity and goodness belonging to Indonesian cultural traditions. Perhaps she also evokes an element of nostalgia for urban consumers. Traditional as a way of life, is often less about the differences between rural and urban settings, than about socio-economic and class distinctions. For women 50 years and older, whose occupations and way of life come to distinguish them as traditional, traditional clothing of kain-kebaya is their choice of daily dress. These women, the majority of whom belong to the lower socio-economic group, often work in traditional settings such as markets, are employed as house servants or work in the agricultural sector.

Today’s Kebaya

Kebaya, If we want try to define what it is, it may prove to be difficult as it is constantly changing to reflect the changing times and fashions that Indonesia is experiencing. Nonetheless, it is possible to make some generalizations about the kebaya. Most Kebaya are made from a lace brocade. Most kebaya fabric uses a floral motif either printed or woven into the textile and its length can fall somewhere from above the waist to below the knee. It usually, but not always, has long sleeves. It is usually fastened at the front, and if not, then gives a semblance of doing so. Some variations of the kebaya will use a batik sash, which is coordinated with the kain, draped over the shoulder as an added accessory.

Kebaya's beauty is undeniable. Although women in the market can be seen wearing kebaya, we can also see exquisite variations of them in government gatherings and parties and high society social functions. Some of the most influential women in Indonesia are married in kebaya that can be described as “works of art” with their hand embroidered detailing and beading. Designers such as Ami Amianto have helped to promote the kebaya not only as a important part of Indonesian clothing history but as a very beautiful item of clothing that Indonesian women are proud to wear.

So the next time you see a women wearing a kebaya you will understand that she is not just wearing a functional piece of clothing but she is also wearing a symbol of Indoneia’s cultural history which represents national symbolism and high fashion too!

This article was written by Gene Sugandy, with research from the following sources:

Reading the Kebaya by Victoria Cattoni
Kebaya - Wikipedia

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Traditional Indonesian Children's Games

In this age of electronic games and hi tech toys, we often forget that it is often the simplest of inventions that can entertain a child for a long period of time. Although state-of-the-art, high tech computer games are available in Indonesia, such as the ever-popular Nintendo and Playstation, these modern inventions are not affordable for the majority of the population. These games would only be found in the homes of middle to upper class families.

During the recent years of economic crisis, it is often hard for parents to make enough money to feed their family, so toys are often quite simple or something that has been made by the parent. Fortunately, traditional toys are not expensive ... and are fun! The toys and the games that are described below are commonly seen and played by Indonesian children today.
Kelereng or Gundu

Kelereng, or marbles to the western world, is a favorite with boys. There are many variations of games played with marbles.

One of the more popular versions is that a small circle is drawn on the ground. All the players put one of theirmarbles marbles within the circle. Then each of the players drops another marble to a point outside of the drawn circle. The player that owns the marble furthest away from the circle is entitled to play first.

He must attempt to use the marble that is outside of the circle (striker) to hit the marbles within the circle and knock them outside of the ring. If he is successful in doing, this he is entitled to keep the marbles that he has knocked out of the circle. The striker marble, however, must also come to rest outside of the drawn circle. If it does not, this marble must remain within the circle and the owner then forfeits this marble.

If the player is successful in knocking one of his opponents' marbles out of the ring, he can continue his turn and try to strike any other opponents. striker marbles. If he is successful in hitting his opponents. striker marble, he is entitled to take that marble and his opponent can no longer play the current round. If however he misses his opponents. striker marble, he looses his turn and the next player can then start to play.
Gangsing or Gasing

This game is normally played by boys. The gangsing is a top made from bamboo with a small opening on the side. This small hole makes the top whistle very distinctively as it Gangsingspins. The size of the hole determines the pitch of the whistle. String is wound around the dowel that goes through the center of the gangsing . The child then holds onto the flat bamboo handle that is tied to the end of the string and pulls this handle to set the gangsing spinning. Normally a circle is drawn on the ground about 50 cm. in diameter. Two children play against each other. The object of the game is to try and knock your opponents gangsing out of the designated circle. Gangsing are commonly sold outside the temples and tourist attractions in Yogyakarta, Central Java.
Lompat Tali

This is a very popular game which elementary school girls play at recess time. It is much like skipping rope however the rope that the girls use is made from hundreds of elastic bands that are looped together to form a large ring. The girls take turns trying to jump over the elastic rope which is held by two girls at each end.

The height of the rope normally starts low, such as at ankle height, and gradually moves higher up the bodies of the children after the jumpers have successfully jumped over the lower height. Experienced jumpers can often jump over ropes that are neck high! A good thing that comes from using a rope that is made from rubber bands, is that if a jumper is not successful in jumping over the rope, the rope will give and the jumper will not be hurt in her unsuccessful attempt. Thus, a lot of skinned knees are avoided.

This is the equivalent of western jacks, and is commonly played by Indonesian girls. The shape of the bekel differs from the western jacks in that they are flat with a small bridge holding the two sides together. On the upper side of the biji bekel there is a small red dot that is called the pit. The under side of the bekel is called a roh. On one of the flat sides of the biji bekel there are small indentations or dots and the other side is smooth.

bola bekelThe game is played is a similar method to jacks, but with a few differences. When the game is started, the biji bekel are all held in the hand of the player and are dropped as the ball is allowed to bounce one time. The player then starts to play by attempting to pick up the biji bekel one at a time without disturbing any of the other biji bekel within the time that it takes the ball to bounce once.

If the player successfully has picked up all of the bekel, he then drops them again and starts the second set of the game. In this set he must attempt to position the biji bekel with the pit facing up again one at a time. This action must be completed while the player throws the ball in the air and allows it to bounce one time. The player must attempt to turn over the bekel without moving any of the other bekel.

If the player completes this successfully, he then picks up the biji bekel one at a time while throwing the ball in the air until he has all of the biji bekel in his hand. He then drops them all again and now picks the biji bekel up two at a time and then three at a time, etc. until he picks up all the biji bekel with one sweep of the hand.

He drops them again and now starts the roh set. The player must attempt to turn over all the biji bekel so the roh side is now facing up. It is permitted to pick up more than one group of the set number while the ball is being thrown in the air. For example if the player is picking up groups of two while the ball is being thrown in the air, he may grab three groups of two bekel. The action of grabbing a set number of bekel is called cek.

If the player moves any of the biji bekel that he is not attempting to pick up, or if he drops any of the biji bekel in his hand, he loses his turn and it goes to the next player. A skilled player can go through many sets of the game before he makes a mistake and has to turn the bekel over to the next player. The player that completes the most sets without making a mistake is considered the winner of the game.

The name is derived from the Dutch game"bikkelen" using the same copper "bikkels".

Layang-layang or kite flying is a very popular pastime for Indonesian children. Provinces throughout the country have their own designs. There are two distinct types of kites: the first is those that are just to be used for flying which have a tailed attached to them to balance the kite; and those that will be used for one-on-one dogfights, a favorite pastime amongst kite flyers.

Fighting kites do not have tails attached to them. They are made from light bamboo and waxed paper. Often the string that is attached to these kites is coated with crushed glass. The string is dipped in a solution of crushed glass, which has been boiled with ka, chemicals and dye. The mixture acts as an adherent so the tiny particles of glass will cling to the string. The string is strung out on a small rack to let it dry. This process makes the string very sharp and capable of cutting the opponents string.

Ready-made glass coated string can also be bought in various thickness. . Most kite flyers opt to buy ready-made string as it is a long and messy process to prepare their own. The choice of the thickness of the string would depend the on the size of the kite, and a greater consideration, the budget of the buyer. If the owner is not careful this string can also cut his fingers as well!

The object of the game is to try and cut the opponents' kite loose. The way that the string is attached to the kite determines the control that the flyer has over his kite. If the two holding strings are attached far apart to the frame of the kite, this will make it heavier to hold on to when it is flying. However, this gives the kite flyer greater control over the movements of the kite.

If the two holding strings are attached closer together onto the frame of the kite, this makes the kite much lighter to hold on to but sacrifices control. These kites tend to be wilder in flight.

Experienced kite flyers know that a taunt string is not as easy to cut as a slack string, so it is up to the skill of the kite flyer to use techniques of pulling and releasing the string to try and avoid having his kite cut free. If a kite is cut free by an opponent, the victor is the one that is still holding a kite. The loose kites are often the culprits of reckless chases. The child that gets to the loose kite first is considered the new owner of the kite.
Kuda Lumping

These small replicas of the larger kuda lumping that are used in a trance dance on Java are cut out from woven Kuda Lumpingbamboo mats and painted with striking colored patterns. Sequins, beads and other materials can also be added to give the kuda lumping its colorful appearance.

When given to a child, their imaginative minds are the only limit as to what dramas these kuda lumping are the center of! Although intended as a toy, many of these delightful horses end up in suitcases to be given as souvenirs of an expat's trip to Indonesia or smaller more colorful versions can be used as eye-catching decorations on Christmas trees.
Mobil-mobilan Kulit Jeruk

Although today's children may think that cars made from Jeruk Bali skins are no match for contemporary toy cars,Mobil Jeruk - cars made from pomelo skin many Indonesian men have fond memories of these home-made cars. Jeruk Bali is a large pomelo (grapefruit-like) that has a very thick skin. Once the fruit has been removed, the skin can then be then cut into pieces that will form the parts of the car.

Stiff coconut frond ribs are used to hold the pieces together. A long stick is attached to the back of the car and can be used to push the car along. Sometimes a string is tied to the front of the car so that it can be pulled behind the owner as well. This very simple toy has brought a smile to the faces of many Indonesian children.
Congklak or Dakon

One of the oldest known games in the world, Congklak can be traced as far back as ancient Egypt. Brought to CongklakIndonesia, probably centuries ago by Arab or Indian traders, it is just as popular in Indonesia today as it has been for through the ages. Congklak is played on a board with circular indentations along both sides and a home indentation on each end of the board.

The game is played with 98 small markers such as shells or beads, which are divided evenly between all the indentations. Although at first glance this many appear to be some type of calculator, it is quite a challenging strategic game and takes a lot of practice before a player becomes skilled.
Musical Instruments

A large majority of Indonesian traditional instruments tend to be made of bamboo, as it is readily availableAngklung throughout Indonesia. School children are often taught basic music on instruments such as Suling, Gambang or Angklung. A suling is a small flute-like instrument, which resembles a recorder, however it is made of bamboo. It has holes down the length of the instrument that when covered or uncovered by the player's fingers result in the various notes.

Angklung are another traditional Indonesian instrument that is made from bamboo, originating from West Java. Angklung are actually a group of various sized hand-held instruments made from bamboo. When the angklung is shaken is produces a chord of music. The size of the angklung determines the chord that it produces. Songs are played with one person standing up behind a group of hanging angklung or by a group of people holding one angklung and playing their chord at the appropriate time within the song - much like a group of people would play bells in the west.

A gambang is a xylophone-type instrument with keys made from different lengths of bamboo. The different lengths of the bamboo result in different notes. The bamboo produces a very pleasant soft sound when struck with the mallets.

A very different type of instrument is the gamelan orchestra. Gamelan is actually a group of percussion and accompanying instruments which are housed on short legs which allow the musician to play the instrument sitting down on the floor cross-legged. Gamelan are used in traditional music, primarily in Java and Bali.

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